Being a ‘Net Winner’ in a Ponzi Scheme Doesn’t Automatically Mean Nondischargeability

Alleging that a debtor realized an ‘impossibly high’ rate of return in a Ponzi scheme isn’t enough to state a claim of nondischargeability for ‘actual fraud.’

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How do you show that a legal entity acted with intent to defraud its creditors for purposes of an avoidance action asserted under Bankruptcy Code § 548(a)(1)(A)? After all, legal entities themselves cannot form an intent; they can only act through their officers, directors or agents. In an action to avoid a fraudulent transfer, courts determine the transferring legal entity’s intent by imputing the intent of its agents to the legal entity.